CPSEs hired more contractual staff in FY22; regular, women employees drop out

A government publication has shown that centralized public sector organizations (CPSEs) rely more on casual or contract employees. The number of permanent employees decreased by about 10,000 in one year while the number of casual or contractual employees increased by about 48,000 in FY22. The number of female employees also decreased by more than 3,800.

The publication titled “Public Institutions Survey 2021-22,” which was prepared by the Public Enterprises Department, included 389 secondary education centers with 248 workers involved. It showed that CPSEs employed more than 14.62 lakh as of FY22 as against more than 14.23 lakh in FY21, an increase of 2.74 per cent. However, the current figure is lower than the pre-pandemic level of around 14.80 lakh in the 2020 financial year.

PF, reward factor

Further, data for FY22 revealed that the total number of permanent employees has fallen to just over 8.41 lakh (8.51 lakh in FY21), a decrease of over 1 per cent. However, during the same period, the number of temporary workers/daily wage workers increased by 2.38 per cent to more than 96,000, while the number of contract workers/employees grew by about 10 per cent to more than 5.24 lakh.

Although no reasons were given for this, it is believed that statutory payments such as PF, tip etc. could be a factor. For regular employees, there is a need to provide money for all these payments, but this is not required for casual or contract workers.

Another important component of this survey is the number of female employees, which saw a decrease of about 4,000 employees. Also, their share in the total staff has not yet crossed the double-digit mark. The survey in FY22, shows that women make up 9.12 percent (76,678) of the total staff in general secondary education centres. This was a decrease from the 80,525 registered in FY21. Also, 33.7 percent of the total women in general secondary education centers are represented at the managerial/executive level while 9.19 percent are at the supervisory level and 57.11 percent are in the laborer categories.


The net profit-earning CPSEs stood at Rs.2.64 crore in FY22 (Rs.1.89 crore in FY21), an increase of 39.85 per cent. The top five CPSE companies with the highest net profits are ONGC, Indian Oil Corporation, Power Grid, NTPC and Steel Authority of India Ltd. The net loss incurred by CPSEs was Rs. 0.15 crore (INR 0.23 crore), which is a decrease of 37.82 per cent. The main losers are BSNL, MTNL, Air India Assets Holding Ltd, Eastern Coalfields Ltd and AllianceAir Aviation Ltd.